The Reasoned glametesaspo.cf - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , Daniel P. Friedman and others published The Reasoned Schemer. Extending the functional language Scheme with logical constructs in order to help the functional programmer think logically and the logic programmer think.

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The variable d is then passed in the recursive call to lot o. Since the variable z associated with d is fresh, null o l succeeds and associates d and therefore z with the empty list. Whenever a conde line is guaranteed to fail.

It will make sense soon. We filled in a blank in the list so that member o succeeds. What value is associated with x in 0 because the recursion succeeds before it run1 x gets to the variable x.

Then x is refreshed. For the second value. There are two values in the list. We know from frame 70 that when x gets associated with e. Clearly each list satisfies member o. Thus 3 will appear where tofu appeared in the fourth list. What should the cdr be when we value at the end of the list.

Now we address how the 0 tofu! That should give us enough It should be the empty list if we find the of a clue. So each value becomes one longer than the previous value. In the recursive call member o x d. When we pretend that 0 1 tofu! The test for being at the end of the list caused this definition to miss the first tofu. Thus in all. The second conde line contributes a value because there is a tofu at the end of the list.

Explain why. We have included an additional conde line that succeeds when the car of l matches x. Then the third conde line contributes a value for the first tofu in the list and it contributes a value for the second tofu in the list.

Because in the second conde line the cdr of l is the empty list. All of the odd positions are proper lists. Because in the third conde line the cdr of l is a pair. The eq-car o l x is now the last question. By removing a conde line that is guaranteed to fail. Members Only The Second Commandment To transform a function whose value is not a Boolean into a function whose value is a goal. Because of this we need an conde additional variable.

The list?. In order for memo tofu a b tofu d tofu e! The first conde line always fails. The second 0 corresponds to finding the second tofu. So memo creates all the possible lists with tofu as one element of the list. The first 0 corresponds to finding the first tofu. Of course. That will still cause rember o peas a b y d peas e out to succeed.

The car o within the eq-car o l x rember o peas a b y d peas e out associates y with peas. Indeed they can. In other words. Of course we can associate with y a value other than peas. The y in the list is then replaced with its value. Has the b in the original list been Yes. Why does b come first? The b comes first because the a has been removed. Has the b in the original list been No. Also the y in the list is replaced with its value. Thus z and y no longer co-refer. Since z is also a fresh variable.

In order to remove the y. Also the y and z in the list are replaced respectively with their reified values. When car l is z. The variable out. The answer of the second conde line. When the 0 eq-car o l x question of the second conde the fifth value?

The answer cdr o l out of the second conde line also succeeds. During the recursion. The null o l question of the first conde line then succeeds. The eq-car o l x question of the second conde line succeeds. All w of the form 0. If surprise o r were to leave r fresh. But if r were b. How is that possible?

Double Your Fun The value is d e! What is The fourth list in frame Then we get cake with ice! What list is this the same as? Because z stays fresh. What is the value cake of cake with run6 x cake with ice fresh y cake with ice d append o x y cake with ice d t cake with ice d t.

Each value includes two lists that. The values include all of the prefixes of the list cake with ice d t. The values include all of the suffixes of the list cake with ice d t. Where do the last four values come recursive call to append o. After null o l from? The value is in frame Not too. Hope you are not too full. Where lambda-limited is defined on the right. Good idea. Introduce a revised definition of unwrap o?

In They represent partially wrapped versions of what way are the other values correct? And the last value is the fully-wrapped original list pizza. Here it is. Here is a surprise! Which of the lists. Swap some of the conde lines? Remember that a singleton list a is really the same as a!

Each list flattens to a b c. These are all the lists generated by attempting to flatten a b c. Here is a variant of flatten o. The last conde line of flatten o is the first conde line of this variant see 3: In fact. No, because although the question of the first define never o any o u conde line within any o fails, the answer of the second conde line, any o u , is where Can never o ever succeed or fail?

First, f gets associated with q, then run1 q always o succeeds once. A condi line that has additional values is not forgotten. That is why there is no value in frame It has no value. The Law of condi condi behaves like conde. This causes the conde first conde line to succeed again.

Have a slice of Key lime pie. Since always o always succeeds. This fails. So always o succeeds always o again. Then run1 q always o. Its value is the same: This time. This yields alli one value.

A Bit Too Much When x and y are the same. When x and y are both 1. The x. Given the bits x. Is there any number that 0 No. Each number is represented as a list of bits. Each number is represented uniquely. A number is an integer greater than or equal to zero. Given the bits b. How about the empty list? Try again.

Then it must be 0 1 1. How do we represent 6 As the list 1 1 0? Which number is represented by 7. Does this seem unusual? Which list represents 9 1 0 0 1. What else is interesting? Every list ends with a 1. Dijkstra — Here is one way to define it. This is called the non-overlapping property. It appears rather frequently throughout this and the next chapter.

If z represent the same numbers? Every number greater than or equal to zero. Therefore z must be 1. Which even number is not of the Zero. If there is no rightmost 1. What is the n-representative of 0 1 1 93 What is the n-representative of 0 x 1. Before reading the next frame. But we run3 s can understand adder o: Treat Yourself to a Hot Fudge Sundae!

In the second value. For example. In the ninth value. Is the fifth value the same as the seventh? Frame 75 shows that 1 0 0! Incrementing each of those numbers by four produces every fourth odd number. The eighth value is like the third value.

Incrementing each of those numbers by one produces every other even number. A carry bit. This is an example of the non-overlapping property described in frame Given the bit d. But if we were to use pos o x in gen-adder o. That is easy. Here is an expression that generates the pairs of numbers that sum to five: Just a Bit More Would it be easier to thanks.

The product of two and a number greater than one is twice the number greater than one. The product of an odd number. To which nonground value does this correspond? The third condi line says that the product of one and a positive number is the number. The first condi line says that the product of zero and a number is zero. The fourth line says that the product of a number greater than one and one is the number. This one is easy. The sixth condi line says that the product of an odd positive number and an even positive number is the same as the product of the even positive number and the odd positive number.

This one is also easy. In order for the recursive call to have a value. Dividing n by two clearly shrinks n. The fifth condi line says that the product of an even positive number and a number greater than one is an even positive number. Of course the rightmost 1 in each number cannot be replaced by a 0. Because if z were.

In run n 1 the recursive call. Clearly the first two conde lines fail. In the second line. If the length of this list is at most three.

In the first conde line. This guarantees that lambda n m n is shorter than m. Is this correct? Does the first condi line enforce Also. By enforcing the second restriction. Therefore the quotient is zero. The first condi line divides a number n by a number m greater than n. If mq is less than or equal to n. All three definitions implement division with remainder. Hold on! Since split o is a relation. Because split o must not allow the list 0 to represent a number.

The log o relation can also find the base b that corresponds to a given n and q. It implements the logarithm relation: It builds a split-rail fence. The logarithm relation is similar to the division relation. The log o relation is equally flexible. Robert Bruce Findler. Kent Dybvig.

For discussion of identifier macros. Building little languages with macros. The Scheme Programming Language third ed. One more try. Their job is to manage the order of How about car o. Matthew Flatt. It represents a substitution that does not contain any associations.

The rhs right-hand side of an association may be any value. Our unify is inspired by Franz Baader and Wayne Snyder. See frame The substitution x! In this case it finds the list x e x.

What They are also z. This is a subtle point. We could then recognize this pair with eq?

What They are also b. The job of walk is to find either a fresh variable or a non-variable value. When v is the lhs of an association in s. The unify v w s new substitution includes the associations of s and perhaps other associations. We let-bind v and w to a possibly different value. Each time we would create variables. This generalizes the improvement in the previous frame.

This effect. We could. We unify the car of v with the car of w. If either v or w is a pair. Then y! Then the y! Because if w is a variable it must be fresh.

If they successfully unify. If v is a fresh variable.

The result of an invocation of reify-s is called a reified-name substitution. What is the value of replacing each fresh variable with its let s y! Within run. When z is walked. Time for vacation. The Law of conda If the question of a conda line suc- ceeds. The question of the fresh x y first conda line fails. The Third Commandment If prior to determining the question of a conda line a variable is fresh.

Thin Ice If the question succeeds. Since not-pasta o x conda fails. Mercury was the first language to effectively combine and extensively use soft-cuts frame 1 and committed choice. See Lee Naish. Zoltan Somogyi. Thomas Conway. The first conde line of teacup o succeeds. Knowing that helps determine teacup o r s whether to use conda or condu. This once o sal o never o is followed by u. This use of once o obeys The Third Commandment.

As a result. If the triple of values i. All the generated triples x. So this run1 expression will have no value. Can we be sure just by looking at the values? It seems so. Within the first group. The values are arranged into four groups of four values. And the third value. If not. We first determine op x y z. If no result of op x y z matches the desired triple. The same is true for bump o n j. March 2, Sold by: English ASIN: Enabled X-Ray: Not Enabled.

Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a customer review. Read reviews that mention logic programming reasoned schemer kindle version little schemer even though read the little though the book code prolog system implementation logical answer authors result type actual ask complete copy. Top Reviews Most recent Top Reviews. There was a problem filtering reviews right now.

Please try again later. Kindle Edition Verified download. I gave this book 5 stars, but as this book is in a complete category of its own, that is kind of a technicality. The Reasoned Schemer is a book that introduces you to the notion, usage, and application of logic programming. Non logic programming basically works from the notion of imperative data flow. This is generally represented by the concept of a function. A function takes a argument and returns a value, it takes input variables and returns output variables.

A logic program creates a relation not a function between a set of variables. If you had a two input function, with one output, you could represent this as a logic program relation of three variables. Two of those relation variables would be what were the two inputs to the function, the third variable would be the output of the function.

Here is the kicker though.

You can provide concrete values for any number of those variable in any order and ask the relation what the other variables might be. At the simplest level, this means that you might run your function "backwards" from the output to the input.

But really, it means that you can ask any question relating to those variables conceptually. Now, realistically, it is not as easy as that. Some relations may never terminate return a answer , some grow too large and barf overflow , some may not complete for various other reasons.

It can be more complex to actually write a logical relation than a function, this must be balanced against the fact that the relation is far more powerful than the function. If you want a primer for logical programing, this book is probably worth your time. It takes you through writing many of the fundamental parts of a logical relation. You can learn quite a bit by reading this code slowly and carefully.

Skimming this book will not work unless you already know it. Really, these concepts build on each other. It is a rather small page number and physically book, but it will take far more time to really go through then its size would suggest. Read and work through for the purpose of understanding, and I think you will really get a good backing in logic programming, and probably enjoy yourself as well!

The above statements applied to the paper edition. The Kindle version of this Book is pure garbage. I tried reading on my Android, just awful. I tried on my Windows PC, same. A good deal of the information in this book is communicated by bolding and italics. These are incredibly difficult to see in the Kindle version.

Shame on the publisher for releasing such an inferior thing to the public. Disappointed in site for not enforcing minimum legibility standards on non free Kindle books. Paperback Verified download. As the saying goes, if you like this sort of thing, this is the sort of thing you'll like. They extend the Scheme language with relational analogues of many constructs, notably lambda and cond in many, many variations , and also provide extended versions of standard Scheme operations like cons, car, and cdr.

Basically, the relational approach involves taking the result of a function call and making it just another argument, but a special argument that can get assigned to as the result of the computation. Big deal, so what?

To do this, the system uses a mechanism called "backtracking" which systematically tries alternatives until it either finds the answer, gives up, or if you didn't program the search right goes on forever.

If you haven't seen this style of programming before, this book will definitely open your eyes.

Having a knowledge of Prolog will definitely make this book easier to understand, although the approach given here is more modern than Prolog in several ways. For one thing, the named relations of Prolog are replaced here by anonymous relations analogous to lambda expressions being anonymous functions , and for another, the somewhat brutal "cut" operator of Prolog, which is used to control backtracking, is ignored in favor of more subtle approaches involving interleaving solutions and giving up after single results are found.

I think the approach of learning-by-pattern-recognition that all the "Little X" books use is fairly effective here, though I think a lot of readers meaning me wouldn't mind a more extended discussion of the mechanics of the system.

It will stretch your mind like a Slinky, and when you're done you'll have learned a new way of looking at programming. The kindle version is legible if you read it in landscape mode preferably on a iPad. You can't type in the code and run it. Careful and engaging walkthroughs of logic programming from bottom-up. No detail is missed, and you can implement your own system in any language from this description.

Would have enjoyed seeing some non-academic scenarios like querying business data. Also, the Kindle edition is hard to read because the print is super tiny. Lost me on the first chapter. They need to make smaller logic leaps. One person found this helpful. I must say that I was expecting lesson on building logical system that this book completely lacks fallowed with examples of using it.

But this book is only about using the Kanren logical system that authors designed. There is no ebook version that's completely inconvenient I was so frustrated with holding the dead tree and typing that I finally scanned the whole thing to keep my hands on the keyboard. The code in the book can't be just typed and tried but you have to apply substitution rules of the author weird symbols in your head. For example succeed is written as s in the book but you should type succeed.

Or run must actually take another argument like run f q while the author insists on writing run q. Neither pseudo code neither working scheme.

Nowhere in the preface does authors mentions that I should download the source code [ When you add everything I wouldn't download this book if I knew all this but on the other hand I'm not inclined to ask for a refund. See all 18 reviews. site Giveaway allows you to run promotional giveaways in order to create buzz, reward your audience, and attract new followers and customers. Learn more about site Giveaway.

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